Cover UAOlena Krushynska, TIMS member in the Ukraine, is making great efforts to place molinology on a firm footing in Ukraine. She edited the second issue of the Ukrainian Molinological Journal (sponsored by the Ukrainian Cultural Foundation), and arranged its sponsorship and distribution.

During the Symposium all the participants received a copy of this well-illustrated publication, which contains 305 pages and is partially bilingual (Ukrainian and English).

In Ukraine the journal was presented at a special Mill Day at the Zabolotnyi State Scientific Architecture and Construction Library in Kyiv, as well as in four other cities. The journal was distributed to various libraries, universities, museums and other institutions (and many mill enthusiasts all over Ukraine), and in addition radio, TV and newspaper interviews were given.

Both the first and second issue of the journal can be downloaded here:

Download the first issue (2011-2014)

Download the second issue (2019)









The Transactions of the 13th TIMS Symposium in Denmark are now available for sale. The volume has 388 pages and is in colour.

The book can be ordered by sending an email to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Price: 35 Euro + postage (5€ inside EU, 9€ outside EU).











"Greek Mills, From the Middle Byzantine Period to the 20th Century” is the latest publication in the series "Bibliotheca Molinologica".

BM Logo with borderIt is as the title mentions, dealing with topics on any type of mill that has been recorded in the bibliography or still surviving in Greece the last 700 years but mainly in the last two centuries up to the early industrial period. It is in two volumes with a total of 700 pages with 92 articles written by 49 authors.

It took 6 years to materialize from the conception of the idea to its final publication involving people from all over Greece even in the remotest places.

There are more than 1200 pictures, plans and maps in colour to support and aid the reader to better understand the topics including a small map at the top of each article pinpointing the area where the subject is located to help the people who are unfamiliar with the geography of Greece.

The book is divided in the following parts:

Volume 1 - The social and cultural aspect of mills, Millstones, Man driven mills, Animal driven mills, Wind driven mills (tower mills), Wind driven mills (other mechanisms), Case studies,

Volume 2 - Water driven mills from medieval times up to the 18th century, Water driven mills from more recent times, Other water driven mechanisms, Early industrial mills.

The publication can be ordered by sending an email to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Price for the 2 volumes: 55 Euro + postage.


Summary of articles in International Molinology No 100 which were published in June 2020

‘Some Late 19th Century Ideas and Machinery for the Milling of Wheat by Percussion’ by Nigel S. Harris.

By the 1870s and 1880s Britain lagged behind the US and Europe in terms of technical developments in milling. However, the 1890s saw rapid development with the introduction of roller systems, but these were not the only methods explored. In this article Nigel Harris looks at milling by percussion; either by pneumatic means (i.e. firing a high speed stream of wheat against a plate) or by a stream of wheat ‘free falling’ onto a high speed rotating impeller. The claimed advantages of these methods are taken from contemporary records such as ‘The Millers Journal’. The performance and operation of some working machines that entered the market, such as Carr’s disintegrator and Nagel and Käemps dismembrator, are compared with traditional millstones.

‘Windmills in Greece: Some thoughts’ by George Speis.

This work is both a personal reflection and a review of windmill types and their distribution across the mainland and numerous islands of Greece. Much of the information was provided from the personal collections of Stephanos Nomikos and the accounts of other authors, news articles, tax registers and legal documents etc. This was all used to build up a comparative database of mills. The author reviews previous assumptions and conclusions regarding the nature of the Greek windmill, then explores the distribution of the various types, sometimes using his own methods of typology. Finally the article looks at the uses these mills were put to.

‘Brothertoft Woad Mill, Lincolnshire, England: an early attempt at mass production’ by John Brandrick.

The author, John Brandrick, is well known for his autocad drawings of mills, many of which have featured in IM. Here he has produced an article based around the drawings he did for the only permanent woad mill and manufactory in the UK, at Brothertoft in Lincolnshire. The product, used for centuries as a blue dye, required careful intensive treatment carried out by ‘waddies’, and grinding in horse mills. This particular establishment was founded by Major John Cartwright, and included cottages and a school for the workers.

‘The horse driven mill in the Monastery of the Strofades Islands, Greece (mid-17th century)’ by Stavros Mamaloukos and Michalis Papavarnavas.

This horsemill was unusually purpose-built into the fabric of the Monastery of the Strophades Islands, dating to the mid-17th century. The mill occupied its own vaulted space, and its unusual preservation is due to the abandonment of the whole ground floor of this castle/monastery complex. The authors have reproduced the results of a survey of the building and provide detailed drawings and photographs of the mill mechanism.

Artificial Channels and Mills: The Example of Basle (Switzerland), by Berthold Moog.

Berthold Moog, a resident of Basle, here tells of the extensive network of artificial canals and channels constructed throughout the city, from as early as 1150. They were formed around three tributaries of the River Rhine, initially through the work of the monasteries. Here the author details the history of each channel in turn, the corporations that managed them (taking over from the monasteries), and the plethora of watermills and industries these channels supported. These include corn mills, sawmills, fulling mills, grinding mills for gunpowder and tanning materials, hammer mills and wire mills. The number of these establishments is staggering and demonstrates just how much industrial and economic development could be based on the power of water.

‘The Rex Wailes Collection has arrived at the Mills Archive’ by Mildred Cookson and Nathanael Hodge, The Mills Archive Trust, Reading, UK.

Rex Wailes is probably the most influential figure in UK molinology and was a founding father of TIMS. Upon his passing, in 1986, his personal collection of mill artefacts and documentation, which had been stored in a damp garden shed, was rescued by Alan Stoyel. Alan did what he could to preserve the material which was sent to the Science Museum in London. In July of 2019 the collection was finally transferred to the Mills Archive Trust in Reading, where for the first time it will be truly accessible for study through digitisation. The authors here tell of the story of the move to Reading, and describe the work that will be necessary to stabilise the collection and preserve it.

‘Wiki Loves Monuments photographic competition; Ukrainian branch’ by Olena Krushynska.

Every September, in individual countries, the ‘Wiki Loves Monuments’ competition is held to judge the best photographs of the world’s historic monuments. The author was a judge on the Ukrainian panel (along with TIMS President, Willem van Bergen), and here she tells of the judging process, and why the three finalists were chosen. The winning images occupy the whole of the covers of this particular edition of IM, and Willem gives his personal view of the photographs.

‘Vermeer Mill, Pella, Iowa US: restored in 2002’ by Logan Aalbers.

Logan Albers recently joined TIMS, and here describes how the city of Pella, Iowa decided to recreate their own working Dutch windmill, as part of their Historic Village. In spring of 2002 the residents celebrated when the whole octagonal superstructure of the mill was lifted onto the high brick base, followed by the placing of the cap and sails. Today the mill is run by trained millers and helpers – all volunteers, and attracts thousands of visitors every year, especially during the tulip festival.

Also included in this edition of International Molinology are two obituaries, one to J.Geoff Hawksley, the other to Owen Ward. Lastly, there is one book review, by Willem van Bergen, on the double-volumed ‘Plantations of Antigua: the Sweet Success of Sugar. A Biography of the Historic Plantations Which Made Antigua a Major Source of the World’s Early Sugar Supply’ by Agnes C. Meeker MBE with Donald A. Dery.

Summary of articles in International Molinology No 102 which were published in June 2021

‘Traditional Grain Mills in Dakhla Oasis, Egypt: their mechanical systems and restoration’ by Yasser Ali

This is the first study of traditional grain mills in Dakhla Oasis, Egypt. A sample animal-powered mill was selected from seven potential candidates for conservation, with the aim of ensuring the sustainability of these traditional systems of production whilst retaining their original function. The methodology for conservation was based on a combination of the traditional experience of the old craftsmen and modern technological applications in restoration and rehabilitation, and in addition the use of software programs in data analysis.

‘The Bohnsdorf Post Mill at the Deutsches Technikmuseum, Museum Park, Berlin: historical context, condition monitoring and planning of future restoration measures’ by
Veronika Zanner

The post mill in Berlin-Bohnsdorf was the last one of its type in Berlin standing in its place of origin. Its destruction would have been unavoidable if the Museum für Verkehr und Technik, today known as the Deutsches Technikmuseum Berlin, had not decided to buy and relocate the decaying structure and machinery in 1983. Today the post mill is still an important feature of the museum’s park and much-frequented by visitors. Nevertheless the wooden construction is more and more affected by degradation caused by neglect and disuse. To stop this process of decay the museum initiated a project in the form of a bachelor thesis, in cooperation with the HTW Berlin and its course on 'Conservation and Restoration'.

‘A Bavarian water saw in Greece during the first years of King Otto (1834-1838)’ by George Speis

The author discovered a previously undiscovered dossier regarding a Bavarian-built water saw at Stropones on the Greek island of Euboea, the result of colonial style development in the reign of King Otto. The details in the dossier reveal the reasoning behind the project, the problems encountered (environmental as well as cultural), and provide insights into construction and infrastructure of the water saw. The project was ultimately a failure.

‘Tide Mills of Portugal (13th-18th centuries): an energy resource for the maritime expeditions’ by Ana Cláudia Silveira

The expansion from out of the reconquered Iberian peninsular, and the crusades to North Africa in the 15th century, was part of the ‘right to conquer’ claimed by all of the sovereigns who governed there from the time of the reign of Fernando the Great, King of Castille and Leon (1037-1065). These maritime expeditions required large quantities of ships biscuits, and this prompted the foundation of tide mills, using the most readily available source of power. 45 such mill sites were located around the Tagus Estuary, alone.

‘The Perg millstone industry’ by Harald Marschner

There is no evidence as to when millstones were mined in Perg; several references indicate a very old tradition. However, in the 16th century the millstone crushers of Perg had such an important supra-regional significance that, in 1582, they had their ‘handicraft regulations’ confirmed by the German Emperor Rudolf II. He granted a privilege regarding these stones such that, “if millstone quarries are found in Upper Austria”, they could only be exploited by the Perg quarry masters.

‘Satellite Survey of the Horizontal-wheeled Watermills of the Shetland Isles’ by Nigel S. Harris

In 2018 Nigel Harris visited and widely reported on Scottish horizontal-wheeled watermills to be found in the Orkneys and the Outer Hebrides. A subsequent visit to the Shetland Isles to carry out a similar quest was postponed due to the Covid19 pandemic. In preparation for a possible future visit the author carried out a literature search and online survey of those mills that still exist, in order to determine their state of preservation and their geographical location.

‘Ancient texts on windmills’ by Etienne Rogier

Ancient writings on windmills are extremely rare; it took a 16th century genius having an encyclopaedic knowledge and an ability to write about a wide ‘range of things’ from bygone days, to deal with this subject. Jérôme Cardan (1501-1576), doctor, astrologer, mathematician, inventor, etc., was the author of a composite volume entitled ‘De Rerum Varietate’, printed for the first time in 1557 in Basel. So far this large book, written in baroque Latin, has not been translated and currently has no scientific edition; so, I have been trying to understand myself Cardan's few lines about windmills.

Also included in this edition of International Molinology are obituaries to Herman Peel, Richard Brüdern and Armando Ferreira. There is one book review, by Graham Hackney, on ‘A Miller and his Mill: The Story of John Else and Warney Mill’ by Judith Cooper.


Summary of articles in International Molinology No 98 which were published in June 2019

The bulk of this edition of IM was devoted to the mill tours which accompanied the 15th TIMS Symposium in Berlin.

Berlin Symposium Pre-Tour to Sachsen, Zittauer Gebirge and Lausitz, by various authors.

This tour, led by Gerald and Dietmar Bost, was set in the far eastern part of Germany (formerly GDR), starting down near the Polish border at Zittau. On the way we stopped at our first mill, the Windmühle Straupitz, a complex of a corn mill, a saw mill and an oil mill. Restoration began in the 1990s and now the whole complex is again in working order, and along with its restaurant is a popular attraction. The second day began in Oderitz at the Fermann-Mühle, a large watermill typically modernised with a Francis turbine and roller mills. Next was a very large post mill, the Berndt-Mühle from 1787. Post mills in Germany were heavily modernised in the late19th century, with patent sails set on iron crosses for ‘high grinding’ of rye with rollers, trieurs, bolters, elevators etc. Then followed the Berthold-Mühle, now powered by electricity like so many watermills in the area where water resources have become insufficient. This is a fully commercial mill with pneumatic carriage. A short walk took us to another post mill, the Neumann Mühle, again so large it required supporting wheels at the base of the buck (so transforming it into a paltrock mill). The third day of the tour was mostly spent at the millstone quarries of Kurort Jonsdorf, which worked commercially until 1919 when one of their biggest markets, in Russia, closed due to trade restrictions. There was still time for one mill, another working post mill at Kottmarsdorf, where there are a pair of ‘hopper boys’ for cooling the fresh meal. The fourth day began at Sohland Mühle, another post mill restored by the local municipality, then a visit to the very large watermill, the Gustav Ritter-Neumühle. This commercial mill is capable of producing 10 tons a day and has been awarded as the “cleanest mill in the world”. A visit to the Moravian Star factory at Hernhuth was followed by the very interesting Hetzemühle, a truly massive post mill which formerly had 5 sails. The last mill of the day was the Lawalde Niedermühle, powered by turbine and now preserved as a ‘technical monument’. The final day of the Pre-Tour saw only one mill, the Riegel Mühle at Nechern, with its Zuppinger-type waterwheel. The bus then left for a guided tour around the city of Dresden before moving on to Berlin.

Symposium Excursions.

Not all the Symposium delegates were able to attend the associated Pre- and Post-Tours, so two days of mill/museum excursions were arranged, all based around the city of Berlin. Due to the number of delegates two coaches were arranged for the first day, taking different routes to reduce the numbers in the mills. The first mill (for some) was the unusual barn mill in Saalow, built by a local carpenter in 1864. This was followed by a visit to Potsdam, the home of the very large Historiche Mühle (or Sanssouci Windmill). The lower floors were all dedicated to displays, but the upper floors contained real mill machinery. Next we moved back to Berlin for the Marzhan post mill, managed (and partly restored) by Jurgen Wolf. A drive across the city took us to the Britzer Muhle, a splendid 12 sided smock mill, where an evening meal had been arranged for the delegates. The second day of excursions involved only one destination, the Deutsches Tecknikmuseum (German Museum of Technology). Formerly one of the city’s main train terminals, the site was transformed into a rail museum but now holds displays on all forms of technology, industry and engineering. This includes mills, and we visited a fully restored post mill, a partly restored Dutch smock mill and a working forge (with undershot water wheel).

Berlin Symposium Post-Tour to Niedersachsen and Braunschweig.

This tour was led by Rüdiger Hagen and Gerald Bost, and centred around the city of Braunschweig (Brunswick) in the former West Germany. It began with a city walk in Wolfenbüttel, the home town of the famous millwright company of Luther & Peters. The whole city seemed dedicated to mills, millstone manufacture and mill engineering. The second day started at the ancient watermill of Erkerode, full of machinery and complicated English style gearing. Next was the village of Räbke where there were formerly eight mills. Of the remaining two, we visited the Liesebach Mühle, with gearing by Luther & Peters and now fully restored. This was followed by a visit to the post mill at Dettum, where the volunteer group was setting the common sails for us. These post mills all had little bedrooms for the miller, with walls made of wattle and dub to help keep out the cold. The next mill, at Hedeper, was a tower mill preserved as a technical monument, superbly situated on top of a hill. The last mill of the day was the five-sail tower mill of Wendhausen, built in 1837 by the Leeds firm of Fenton & Murray. The next day saw a visit to the UNESCO World Heritage site of the Museum of Mining at Rammelsberg. The molinological interest here was the use of water power to drive pumps, raise ore and carry miners up and down (in ‘man engines’). The memorable trip down the mine showed us the double water wheels, capable of driving in either direction. We then moved on to the industrial complex of Königshütte at Bad Lauterburg, formerly the iron and bronze foundries of the Elector of Hanover, then sold to the millwrights Peters of Wolfenbüttel. Here we saw foundries, machine shops and a large corn mill at the rear of the site. The third day had one destination, the unique Internationales Mühlenmuseum at Gifhorn. Here there are restorations and recreations of all forms of mills from around the world including post, smock and tower windmills, horizontal and vertical watermills, a horse mill and a boat mill. The fourth day began at the smock mill called Paula, at Steinhude, now fully operational. The next was the very traditional post mill at Dudensen, with cloth sails and double quarter bars. At Laderholz watermill there are two waterwheels, one above the other, then to another watermill at Vesbeck which has been moved twice. The last mill of the day was the open trestle post mill at Wettmar, with one pair of common sails and one pair of patents. The following morning we visited the large stone-built tower mill at Wichringhausen. This has an amazing power transmission in the basement, driving all the pulleys and shafts further up in the mill. Our next stop was Stadthagen to see a watermill, now disused, but was once part of a brewery. Full of ‘modern’ milling machinery, but still with the old water wheel from an earlier building. The last visit of the day (and the whole Post-Tour) was to the pair of forge mills at Exten. The Upper Forge is still undergoing refurbishment, and the Lower Forge is completely full of early 20th century metal working equipment.

Milling Around in Gloucestershire by M J A Beacham.

Following Mike Beacham’s two part analysis of the business affairs of a Gloucestershire mealman in the early 19th century, this article explores the movement of corn mill workers during that period. Using census reports the author has been able to track the movements of individuals from mill to mill, and also how often and how far they moved.

Magic and mills: case study, the last watermill on the Iza river, Maramureş, Romania by Adrian Scheianu.

Adrian is a curator at the Astra Open Air Museum at Sibiu, site of our 14th Symposium. His article explores the relationship between traditional milling technology and the magic and myths that surrounded it. Particularly he centres on the watermill of Dănilă Mecleş, the last one of its kind in Săcel, and information provided by Vasile Şuşcă, a craftsman and designer of traditional masks, and descended from a family of millers.

Repairing a Syrian Naura by Stephanos Nomikos.

This follows an article by Richard Brüdern on the Nauras of Hama and Damascus, published in IM98. In 2008 Stephanos visited Syria to view these monuments, and whilst travelling across country came across a pair of them still in working order. Of even greater interest was the fact that one was being refurbished by local craftsmen, and the author luckily recorded the event in notes and photographs.

An observation on Robbert & Sytske Verkerk’s article concerning the Moulins Chapelle, in Saint-Cyr-en-Bourg, France (Transactions of the TIMS Symposium, Sibiu, Romania 2015) by Christian Cussonneau.

Robbert & Sytske Verkerk’s paper delivered at Sibiu in 2015 prompted a question on the origin of the name ‘Moulins Chapelle’. The answer is provided here by Christian Cussonneau. Also, since there was an unfortunate printing problem with the axonometric drawings in Robbert & Sytske’s article in the 14th Transactions, they are reproduced here.


Also included in this edition of International Molinology are three book reviews. The first, by Gerald Bost, looks at the recent publication of the 4 volume Codex Madrid I of Leonardo da Vinci. This is the artist’s main work on technology and shows his amazing drawings of mills and mill gearing. The second, by Graham Hackney, is a review of the Mills Archive Trust publication ‘Mills at War’ by Ron and Mildred Cookson. This explores the many uses of mills in warfare, to feed armies (and besieged towns and garrisons), but also as signalling towers and muster points. The third, also by Graham Hackney, is a review of ‘Corn Watermills of the National Trust in England’ by Nigel S. Harris. This volume describes all of the 19 such mills in the ownership of the National Trust, and uses these as examples for descriptions of traditional milling technology.

Summary of articles in International Molinology No 98 which were published in June 2019

Historical Survey of an English Watermill at Gomshall, Surrey by Nigel S. Harris.

Nigel’s ancestor, David Harris, obtained a lease in 1752 on Gomshall Watermill, Surrey. However, the mill is much older than this, possibly with Anglo-Saxon origins. The article gives a history of the mill including an account of the major refurbishment in 1674 when new gearing allowed the use of four sets of stones (probably  French burr stones installed in a hurst frame). There is an inventory of 1786 when David Harris sold the mill, and then an account of further works in 1839. The mill finally ceased production in 1953 and is now a restaurant. The article includes drawings by John Brandrick.

Horizontal-wheel grain mills with rotating bedstones (under-runners) in Amdo, Tibet by Eugen Wehrli.

This is an update of an article originally published in 1993, and deals with the highly unusual horizontal wheel mills of Tibet and Western China where the upper stone is suspended in a stationary position whilst the bedstone is rotated. This arrangement allows for fine adjustment of the stones, and this is clearly demonstrated by the drawings of John Brandrick.  Under-runners appear to be common in the region of Amdo and in Northern Tibet but very rare elsewhere. Even so, there are surviving examples of these across central China as far south-east as Doilungdechen (Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region). Under-runner mills of a very different design and technology were also popular in Europe and US at the end of the 19th century.

A Gloucestershire Mealman: Anthony Fewster of Inchbrook Mill. Part Two by M J A Beacham.

Mike Beacham’s  second part of a detailed analysis of the business affairs of a Gloucestershire mealman in the early 19th century. Mealmen were middle men, trading between farmers, millers and bakers, and could also be millers themselves; Anthony Fewster ran Inchbrook mill for 43 years. Mike’s detailed account shows how Fewster exanded his business, taking advantage of every opportunity in a highly competitive field, even to the point of keeping pigs and selling brooms, fish and soot!

The Windmills of Arwad, Syria by Etienne Rogier.

Etienne recounts the story of how, during a search through the photographic Archives of the Ecole Biblique et Archéologique Française (EBAF), in Jersulam, he came across three amazing photographs of traditional windmills, taken by Father Raphaël Savignac in 1915, on the Island of Arwad. Savignac worked for the French Intelligence Service during the  occupation of the island, facing the Ottoman guns on the mainland. The photos show one stone tower mill, and a line of six wooden pivot mills which sit on square bases supported by stilts.

The historical development of Water Lifting Wheels and insufficient water in Hama and Damascus, Syria by Richard Brüdern.

Richard Brüdern worked in Syria during the 1960s and 1980s. His account records the development of water lifting wheels from antiquity, through the Roman and Islamic periods and into the Medieval era in Europe. The spectacular wheels of Hama and Damascus, known as Naura, were a high point in this development, but Richard applies his engineering knowledge to demonstrate how their efficiency could have been maximised. Fourteen of these wheels still stand in Hama, but they face an uncertain future.

References regarding topics of molinology found in the texts of Ancient Greek authors by Stephanos Nomikos.

Members and friends of the Greek TIMS have researched the texts and poems of the Ancient Greek-speaking authors and poets, from the 8th century BC up to the 6th century AD, in order to detect references to mills of that period, and also to the millers, millstones, grinding procedures and generally to topics related to molinology. Many of the references are mythological, others, such as in Roman times, as more historical, whilst others deal with alternative uses of millstone as in buildings and roads.

Van Wyck-Lefferts Tide Mill Sanctuary, Inc. takes ownership and stewardship of the 18th century Mill and surrounding acreage.

Wyck-Lefferts Mill is one of only two tide mill buildings in the US which have significant gears, stones and remaining equipment, and this article reports on a recent announcement regarding its future preservation. This involves the transfer of a 17-acre parcel of land to a not-for-profit organisation whose mission is to promote responsible public access and enjoyment of both Mill and the Mill Cove Waterfowl Sanctuary in the village of Lloyd Harbor in Huntington, New York.

Also included in this edition of International Molinology are two obituaries, one to Chris Gibbings, the other to Cees van Hees.

Summary of articles in International Molinology No 97 which was published in December 2018

In this edition of International Molinology a letter of invitation to the 15th TIMS Symposium in Berlin is included, by the Symposium Chairman, Gerald Bost.

An English country millwright at the end of the 19th century: Thompson’s of Alford in Lincolnshire by Colin Moore

Thompson’s of Alford were a well-known firm of millwrights in England, operating until recently (2013), and involved in many important restoration and repair projects. This article recounts the very earliest years of the firm (from 1877 to 1900), based on ledgers made recently available by Tom Davies, the last owner. These provide a wealth of comparative data on type and locations of jobs (not just on mills), and on the earliest financial accounts. Founded by the highly enterprising Robert Thompson, who bought their first yard in Parsons Lane, Alford, they were involved in work on some of the most advanced windmills ever built in England. Robert provided well for his children, and the family firm succeeded through the difficult times when country mills were closing through competition from industrialisation. The rest of the story remains to be told!

Archive sources and field surveys used to analyse horizontal-wheeled watermills, their position and technology, in the Basilicata Region of Southern Italy by Maria Carmela Grano.

Basilicata is a mountainous region in the far south of Italy, and this study, based on Maria’s PhD thesis, is the first on the watermills built there between the late 1700s and 1900. Over 1500 mills were mapped through archival data and field studies and their locations and  technologies (relative to fluvial dynamics), were applied to statistical modelling and a geographic information system, providing interesting conclusions. The mills were wholly of the horizontal-wheeled type of the ‘drop tower penstock’ type, and this study “challenges some of the stereotypes which consider them to be a primitive technology that inevitably faced oblivion when confronted with competition from its more complex, vertical-wheeled counterpart”. Their success “reflects the complete adequacy of the technology, perfectly appropriate, rather than primitive. These mills were preferred because they were fit for purpose, cheaper and easier to build and maintain”.

A Gloucestershire Mealman: Anthony Fewster of Inchbrook Mill. Part One by M J A Beacham.

Following his contribution on prison treadmills, Mike Beacham has provided the first part of a detailed analysis of the business affairs of a Gloucestershire mealman in the early 19th century. Mealmen were middle men, trading between farmers, millers and bakers, and could also be millers themselves; Anthony Fewster ran Inchbrook mill for 43 years. As the population grew the mealmen became involved in the import trade through ports such as Bristol and Gloucester, and Fewster’s ledgers show the extent of his trade both geographically and in terms of turnover in the days of horse and cart. Part Two will appear in IM80.

Early British Prison Treadmill Development: with notes on practices at Gloucestershire Gaols before 1845 by Keith Preston.

Keith Preston, a resident of New South Wales, was prompted to write this article after reading Mike Beacham’s paper on the treadmill at Horsley House of Correction. The early development of prison treadmills is explored, and their use both for grinding corn and raising water.  They were seen as tools of reform during a time of rising crime following the Napoleonic Wars, and were exported to the colonies. The treadmill regime was terribly hard, and guidelines were introduced to limit the equivalent daily ascent to 12,000 ft (3.658 m)!  A less severe form of punishment was the crank mill, turned by hand rather than through climbing. Later, as the economics of grinding changed, milling in prisons ceased.

The Messolonghi Windmill by George Speis.

This article recounts the tale of a mill which became a symbol of resistance in the siege of Messolonghi, during the Greek Revolution (for independance from the Ottoman Empire). Windmills were not usual in this part of Greece but this one was necessary to provide meal for this fortress city, and the know-how and technology came from the Ionian Islands.  The information was gathered from the Greek State’s General Archives, plus contemporary artistic depictions of the siege. The Windmill was the last point of defence, and was thought to have been destroyed by explosion, but the Archives show that it was still in use 10 years later.

Leonardo da Vinci: Water falling onto a bucket wheel and a new edition of Codex Madrid I by I.R. Dietrich Lohrmann.

As early as the late 1490s Leonardo was engrossed in the question of the efficiency of water wheels, and “as to whether it is more advantageous to drop water perpendicularly onto a water wheel or to do so at a certain angle”.  This article concerns a statement by Leonardo, rediscovered in 1955-6, in the Codex Madrid I, a new edition of which is published by the author this year. This concerns the relative amounts of work generated by the weight of water in the buckets of the wheel and the percussive effect of water striking the wheel. Leonardo’s own illustrations are reproduced here, and these influenced water wheel design in the following years.

Mills, Maladies and Magic by David Jones.

The kleiekotzer, literally “bran spewer”, is found only in the Schwarzwald (Black Forest) region of Germany and in the adjoining Strasbourg area of France. They take the form of a mask attached to the bolter of the mill, from which the bran (or the “unwholesome” part of the grain) is expelled. They date back to the 16th century, a time when epidemics of ergotism (or St Anthony’s Fire), were caused through eating rye bread infected with the over-wintering bodies of the ergot fungus. David Jones here explores the link between the disease and the magic protection provided by these fantastic masks – the “protective spirit” of the mill. There follows a series of photographs of kleiekotzers taken by Willem van Bergen.

UNESCO recognition of the craft of the Miller by Erik Kopp.

In December of 2017, the Dutch ʽcraft of millers operating windmills and watermillsʼ was inscribed on the UNESCO Representative List of ʽIntangible Cultural Heritage of Humanityʼ. The Dutch identity is connected to mills and the craft of the miller has an iconic value within the Netherlands. This recognition by UNESCO rightly reflects the effort made by all the professional and volunteer millers within the various Guilds and De Hollandsche Molen.

Bernard Badaroux, millwright and the ‘soul of the windmill of Rédounel’, in La Couvertoirade (Aveyron), France by Jean Pierre Azéma.

This article recounts the 12 year restoration of the windmill of Rédounel, inspired in part by the author, and involving the work of Bernard Badaroux, millwright, carpenter and aesthete. His meticulous work requires great attention to traditional methods and materials, even to the extent of re-using 150 year old timbers and searching flea-markets for period vintage nails and bolts.

The one book review, is by Tarcis van Berge Henegouwen, on Collet Veron’s work on the watermills of the Vivarais region of France, entitled “DU MOULINS AU PAYSAGE: Technique, espace et société au bord de l’eau. Le Vivarais du Moyen Âge à la fin du XIXe siècleˮ.

BM20 - Ganzel and Wulff - The Quest for American Milling Secrets

BM20BM20 was issued in December 2010.

From the Introduction: "In 1832 a publication was issued in Berlin called “Beiträge zur Kenntnis des amerikanischen Mühlenwesens und der Mehlfabrikation”, or “Contribution to the Understanding of American Mills and Flour Production”, written by Carl Friedrich Ganzel and Friedrich Wulff. This document describes their journey around the United States, the mills they visited and how they were used to produce export quality flour."

In about 250 pages the reader will find a translation of the 1832 report by Ganzel and Wulff on the mill technology in the USA of the early 19th century, illustrated with numerous pictures and drawings, as well as comments to this report and a description of the adaption of the USA mill technology in Germany.

How to get it?

The book is available in our bookshops.

Some first reactions from our members:

. . . The care which has been taken to compile this book, both out of the original text (and inclusion of all the original drawings) and also from many other works, is incredible!

. . . Congratulations, this must be the best BM to date! It will give me some good reading over Christmas, I am sure all our members will be delighted to receive it.

. . . In full appreciation of the merits of the preceding volumes in the BM series, I simply must say that I find BM20 the most fascinating volume to date, for a variety of reasons: Highly interesting subject, sort of interdisciplinary, augmented by the skills of many aficionados of mills and milling and by a most insightful foreword, issue put into historical perspective - what can I say.

. . . What a good surprise, I got the TIMS Publications today! Many thanks to the authors Derek and Gerald and also Tony for the great work.

. . . This BM20 is a thoroughly worthy addition to the series, in fact it is a trailblazer for the future. Scholarly, technically sound, easy on the eye while being demanding in content.

. . . I can't thank the TIMS staff enough for the fantastic book! I have read it about three times now and every time I learn something new.