Summary of articles in International Molinology No 98 which were published in June 2019

Historical Survey of an English Watermill at Gomshall, Surrey by Nigel S. Harris.

Nigel’s ancestor, David Harris, obtained a lease in 1752 on Gomshall Watermill, Surrey. However, the mill is much older than this, possibly with Anglo-Saxon origins. The article gives a history of the mill including an account of the major refurbishment in 1674 when new gearing allowed the use of four sets of stones (probably  French burr stones installed in a hurst frame). There is an inventory of 1786 when David Harris sold the mill, and then an account of further works in 1839. The mill finally ceased production in 1953 and is now a restaurant. The article includes drawings by John Brandrick.

Horizontal-wheel grain mills with rotating bedstones (under-runners) in Amdo, Tibet by Eugen Wehrli.

This is an update of an article originally published in 1993, and deals with the highly unusual horizontal wheel mills of Tibet and Western China where the upper stone is suspended in a stationary position whilst the bedstone is rotated. This arrangement allows for fine adjustment of the stones, and this is clearly demonstrated by the drawings of John Brandrick.  Under-runners appear to be common in the region of Amdo and in Northern Tibet but very rare elsewhere. Even so, there are surviving examples of these across central China as far south-east as Doilungdechen (Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region). Under-runner mills of a very different design and technology were also popular in Europe and US at the end of the 19th century.

A Gloucestershire Mealman: Anthony Fewster of Inchbrook Mill. Part Two by M J A Beacham.

Mike Beacham’s  second part of a detailed analysis of the business affairs of a Gloucestershire mealman in the early 19th century. Mealmen were middle men, trading between farmers, millers and bakers, and could also be millers themselves; Anthony Fewster ran Inchbrook mill for 43 years. Mike’s detailed account shows how Fewster exanded his business, taking advantage of every opportunity in a highly competitive field, even to the point of keeping pigs and selling brooms, fish and soot!

The Windmills of Arwad, Syria by Etienne Rogier.

Etienne recounts the story of how, during a search through the photographic Archives of the Ecole Biblique et Archéologique Française (EBAF), in Jersulam, he came across three amazing photographs of traditional windmills, taken by Father Raphaël Savignac in 1915, on the Island of Arwad. Savignac worked for the French Intelligence Service during the  occupation of the island, facing the Ottoman guns on the mainland. The photos show one stone tower mill, and a line of six wooden pivot mills which sit on square bases supported by stilts.

The historical development of Water Lifting Wheels and insufficient water in Hama and Damascus, Syria by Richard Brüdern.

Richard Brüdern worked in Syria during the 1960s and 1980s. His account records the development of water lifting wheels from antiquity, through the Roman and Islamic periods and into the Medieval era in Europe. The spectacular wheels of Hama and Damascus, known as Naura, were a high point in this development, but Richard applies his engineering knowledge to demonstrate how their efficiency could have been maximised. Fourteen of these wheels still stand in Hama, but they face an uncertain future.

References regarding topics of molinology found in the texts of Ancient Greek authors by Stephanos Nomikos.

Members and friends of the Greek TIMS have researched the texts and poems of the Ancient Greek-speaking authors and poets, from the 8th century BC up to the 6th century AD, in order to detect references to mills of that period, and also to the millers, millstones, grinding procedures and generally to topics related to molinology. Many of the references are mythological, others, such as in Roman times, as more historical, whilst others deal with alternative uses of millstone as in buildings and roads.

Van Wyck-Lefferts Tide Mill Sanctuary, Inc. takes ownership and stewardship of the 18th century Mill and surrounding acreage.

Wyck-Lefferts Mill is one of only two tide mill buildings in the US which have significant gears, stones and remaining equipment, and this article reports on a recent announcement regarding its future preservation. This involves the transfer of a 17-acre parcel of land to a not-for-profit organisation whose mission is to promote responsible public access and enjoyment of both Mill and the Mill Cove Waterfowl Sanctuary in the village of Lloyd Harbor in Huntington, New York.

Also included in this edition of International Molinology are two obituaries, one to Chris Gibbings, the other to Cees van Hees.